(We are) RECRUITING for the EXPORT | FLUIGENT INTERVIEW (Le Moci web conference)Read more
A human BBB (blood brain barrier)-on-chip to assess vascular permeability
A microfluidic model of the human BBB (blood-brain barrier) connected to our Flow-EZ pressure controllers allowing quantitative vascular permeability analyses.
Agarose Microcapsules Synthesis
This application note describes the method for the production of double agarose emulsions using the RayDrop double emulsion chip and Fluigent pressure-based flow controllers. Agarose microcapsules are generated with precise control of particle, core and shell size.
Alginate Microbeads Production
Following is a method for encapsulation of reagent into alginate microbeads with total control of bead formation. A droplet-based microfluidic method is used to precisely control the production of microbeads without the drawbacks of large size distribution that present other methods.
Alginate Microcapsule Synthesis
In this application note, we describe the process of producing highly monodisperse alginate microparticles using droplet-based microfluidic methods to control droplet size and core-shell ratio. Different concentrations of alginate have been used to show the versatility and adaptability of the RayDrop in multiple applications.
Analysis of a commercial surfactant for digital PCR assay
In this application note we are investigating the usability of the commercially available surfactant dSurf for an exemplary digital PCR-assay.
ARIA Tutorial Episode 1 : How To Plug An ARIA [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
ARIA Tutorial Episode 2 : Connect To Set The Fluidic Path [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
ARIA Tutorial Episode 3 : How To Fill Up The Reservoirs [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
ARIA Tutorial Episode 4 : How To Use ARIA Manually [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
ARIA Tutorial Episode 5 : Perform A Calibration With ARIA [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
ARIA Tutorial Episode 6 : Global Handling Of ARIA [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
ARIA Tutorial Episode 7 : Software Presentation [automated cell perfusion] - FluigentRead more
Automated immunolabeling to perform highly multiplexed tissue imaging with ARIA
Understanding cell-cell interactions and spatial relationships in healthy or diseased organs represents a technical challenge. Single-cell genomics is powerful but lacks spatial context. In this study, automated immunolabeling has been applied to obtain a versatile multiplex optical imaging approach for deep phenotyping and spatial analysis of cells in complex tissues.
Cells are constantly exposed to biochemical stimulation from the early embryonic stage to adult life. The spatiotemporal regulation of these signals is essential as it determines cell fate, phenotype, metabolic activity as well as pathological behaviors. The fast response and high stability of Fluigent instruments make them the best solution available on the market to reproduce these complex variations in vitro.
In vivo, most cells are constantly exposed, actively or passively, to mechanical forces. Reproducing these physiological constraints in vitro is essential to induce the right phenotype to cells, finalize their maturation and maintain homeostasis. The wide range of pressure covered by Fluigent products permits one to accurately study biomechanics from molecular level to organ scale.
Capillary electrophoresis using microfluidic, electrophoretic, and optic modules
We present here the Lego CE system consisting of available ready-to-use electrophoretic and microfluidic modules, including pressure-based flow controllers. The instrument is coupled with a laser-induced fluorescence detector (LIF) and is demonstrated for separations of labeled oligosaccharides
Capture and Labeling of Cancer Cells Using Aria
This application note describes the use of the new Fluigent Aria – a software-assisted instrument capable of delivering up to 10 different solutions – for the automation of a complete protocol of capture and labeling of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells including surface treatment, injection of antibodies-coated beads, and cell suspension, and immunostaining steps.
Cartilage on chip using Fluigent MFCS pressure controller
Elucidating how chondrocytes react to external stimuli (mechanical or chemical) is important to understand processes triggering cartilage diseases like osteoarthritis. In this application note, we report on the use of Fluigent products to create complex mechanical stimulation patterns on 3D cell culture in a microfluidic platform, or so-called organ-on-a-chip device, with a specific focus on creating a cartilage-on-a-chip model.
Cell perfusion with pulse-free flow with one manifold
In this application, one Flow EZ™ pressure channel is connected via a manifold to ten separate vials containing different aqueous solutions. Use of the M-Switch™ and OxyGEN allows the selection of a specific solution directed to a microfluidic device.
Choosing the right pressure range
Fluigent offers 10 pressure ranges for its different product lines. Which is the right one for you?
Comparison between peristaltic, syringe and pressure pumps for microfluidic applications
This pump selection guide shows the advantages as well as the disadvantages of each method of fluid delivery in Microfluidics so it will help you to choose the proper one for your microflui
Development of a human gut-on-chip to assess the effect of shear stress on intestinal functions
Fluid flow and shear stress have previously been reported to promote proper intestinal cell differentiation, formation of villus-like 3D structures and enhanced intestinal barrier function.
Doing PhD with Fluigent 2021: Research on Honey by Daniel Kraus (Jena, Germany)
One of our PhD students Daniel is doing his postgraduate research on honey at the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology. Using the microfluidic set-up, including microfluidic chip and Fluigent pressure pumps
Double Emulsion Generation
In this application, we are going to present a robust capillary-based device that allows single-step production of double emulsion with a single device. Different examples of double emulsion (w/o/w and o/w/o) have been generated to show the versatility and adaptability of the Raydrop to multiple applications such as Polymer and Hydrogel microcapsules for drug delivery or for encapsulation of cells for FACS sorting as well.
The Drop-Seq protocol, is a high throughput method that enables the sequencing of the mRNA from a large number of cells. With this method it is possible to create a gene expression map of the cell, or even distinguish cell populations within a tissue!
Droplet and particle manipulation using electrophoretic flow control
Many microfluidic applications are developed based on concepts relying on electrodes, exploiting the electrical properties of samples to sort or separate them, generate electro-osmotic flows, manipulate particles, perform electrochemical detection etc. One example of this is electronic paper, where the electrophoretic displacement of titanium dioxide particles in a dark hydrocarbon oil solution allows the formation of a black and white pattern with a high resolution.
Droplet generation using syringe pumps and pressure-based flow controllers
Droplet production using microfluidic systems was implemented for applications where monodispersity is of high importance. Syringe pumps are commonly used for generating droplets in microfluidic experiments, but can show limited flow control.. An alternative to syringe pumps are pressure-based flow controllers.
Droplet-based Microfluidics – White Paper
Complete and in-depth overview on droplet microfluidics.
E. Coli Culture in Droplets Using dSURF Fluorosurfactant
In this application note, discover how using microfluidics allows one to encapsulate single or multiple cells into tiny droplets of pL volume which are generated at a rate of approximately one thousand per second.
Emulating the chondrocyte microenvironment using multi-directional mechanical stimulation in a cartilage-on-chip
A cartilage-on-chip platform coupled to Fluigent pressure controllers to generate compressive or multi-directional mechanical stimulations to study how mechanical stimulation of the chondrocytes can help to reproduce the native articular cartilage microenvironment.
Encapsulation of multiple emulsions in a single droplet
How to encapsulate multiple aqueous droplets (called “core”) into a single oil shell.
Extended capabilities of pressure driven flow for microfluidics applications
Microfluidic experiment often require a high level of control of fluids to permits reproducible results and the success of different application. To this purpose Pressure based flow controller are well suited for a various number of microlfuidic application when high stability is required such as cell perfusion and shear stress control or in droplet production when monodispersity is of high importance.
It also allows to generate complex flow profil such as sequential injection with aortic profil or when real time flow rate measurement is needed, a parameter that other fluid handling system can't offer.
Flow control and measurement
The main flow control solutions can be divided in three sections: pressure based solutions (such as the Flow EZ™), volume displacement (such as syringe or peristaltic pumps) and passive techniques. All of these control techniques have different advantages. In order to make the best choice, it is important to consider the following elements.
- The flow rate or the pressure range you need.
- How quickly you need to set or change the flow rate.
- How stable you need the flow rate to be.
Flow Control Technologies
To perform effective experiments in microfluidics, one needs to master the different flow control technologies available to use the most suitable way to control microfluidic flows. This article aims at presenting a short review of the existing techniques.
Fluid recirculation for cell perfusion with reduced shear stress
Many microfluidic applications require expensive solutions to be injected at a controlled flow-rate into a microfluidic system, such as cell cultures, PCR processes, cell injections or simulation of blood capillaries with a controlled minimal mechanical stress.
Funded research program participation
Many national and internationally funded projects bring together science and innovation. These projects cover a large number of subjects. Fluigent takes part in several European and French funded programs to provide expertise and resources in microfluidics and related applications.
Generation of microcapsules with a UV-crosslinked polymer
Using the double emulsion Raydrop, controlled double emulsification is achieved by dripping or jetting the core fluid into an immiscible shell fluid, which is then encapsulated by the third fluid. In this note, capsules are formed by consolidating shell phase of the resulting double emulsions by uv-crosslinking of monomers and photoinitiator used as shell phase.
Hans-Knöll-Institut, New Antibiotics, Cultivation in Droplets
This project focuses on how Fluigent's customers use microfluidics to achieve outstanding results in their technology experiments.
High Throughput Single Cell Analysis
Individual cell heterogeneity within a population has invalidated historic classification methods based on macroscopic considerations and given rise to new evaluation techniques based on single cell transcriptional signature. In this context, thanks to high throughput screening capacities, easy fluid handling and reduced costs related to device miniaturization, microfluidics has emerged as a powerful tool for single cell analysis.
High-throughput cell DNA screening using digital PCR
The use of water-in-oil droplets in microfluidics in high-throughput screening is rapidly gaining acceptance. The main application areas currently involve screening cells as well as genetic material for various mutations or activity. Thanks to droplet microfluidic, Michael Ryckelynck and his team are able to isolate single DNA molecules and analyze the enzymes and proteins resulting from their expression.
How to ask cells what proteins they produce?
The conventional way to isolate cells is by using Fluorescence Activation (FACS) to sort them into barcoded well plates (96 wells, 384 or 1536). This step is quite fast with the FACS currently available, but segregating thousands of cells into plates will result in a long process of pipetting. Droplet microfluidics allows for fast and low volume compartmentalization up to a thousand drops produced per second
How to choose a microfluidic chip
With this review, we give you some advices on how to select the right microfluidic chip for your application.
How to Evaluate Cell Proliferation Using Pressure as a Tool
This application presents a simple method to monitor cell proliferation in microfluidic chips in real time. This is demonstrated experimentally using a custom microfluidic chip. Cell morphology was studied under flowing and static culture condition
How to reproduce active biomimetic stimulation in vitro?
Organ-on-a-chip (OOC) technology has paved the way for investigating the impact of mechanical strain in cell biology research by reproducing key aspects of an in vivo cellular microenvironment. Combining microfluidics and microfabrication enables one to reproduce mechanical forces experienced by living tissues at the cell scale.
Impedance spectroscopy for characterization and counting
We present in this application note our Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy Platform (or EISP) consisting of microfluidic flow controllers from Fluigent to maintain precise flow control, a chip from Micronit Microtechnologies B. V to localize impedance measurements, and a lock-in amplifier from Zurich Instruments to perform impedance measurements. We demonstrate the system efficiency by determining the size of micrometer beads and by measuring the generation rate water-in-oil droplets.
INDEX | H2020 European project
INDEX: Integrated nanoparticle isolation and detection system for complete on-chip analysis of exosomes The aim of the European Union’s Horizon H2020 project, INDEX is to isolate and characterize exosomes available in body fluids through development and integration of novel technological breakthroughs.
Interview with Benoit Scheid from Secoya
Benoit Scheid, Senior Researcher, FNRS (National Foundation for Scientific Research).
Professor at the “Université Libre de Bruxelles”, teaching microfluidics to bioengineers and biomedical engineers.
Research activities focusing on process-orientated microfluidics.
Chairman of the Secoya board and scientific advisor.
Key considerations for fluidic system integration
The choice of the right method of fluid management can often determinate the success of a project, as well as the overall time and cost of manufacturing. Here is what you need to consider and be aware of when integrating fluidic control into your system.
Key reliability indicators for OEM components to ensure long-term performance of your flow control system
In this short blog, we review the most important aspects to consider when selecting fluid handling OEM components.
Liposome Nanoparticles Synthesis
Liposomes were discovered in the 1960s. These hollow nanoparticles are phospholipid vesicles consisting of at least one lipid bilayer. This bilayer is usually composed of amphiphilicphospholipids that have a hydrophilic phosphate head and a hydrophobic tail consisting of two fatty acid chains. This structural feature has facilitated liposomes’ applications, including their use as artificial cell membranes, carriers for drug delivery systems, encapsulating agents forfood ingredients, and analytical tools.
Meet OxyGEN : AUTOMATION and REAL TIME control software - FluigentRead more
Microbiome culture in droplet using dsurf surfactant
The performance of three commonly used surfactants are compared at three different concentrations. The droplet stability over time and the droplet occupation rate is determined by encapsulating a microbial community derived from human skin.
Microbubbles formation using the RayDrop
Microfluidic devices are used for Bubble generation at micron-scale, yielding high monodispersity and well-controlled size. We investigated how parameters such as the geometry of the nozzle and the continuous-phase flow rate affects the microbubble formation process.
Microfabrication of Microfluidic Chips: Materials and Methods
We discuss the main materials used for microfluidic chips, and their related production methods. In addition, we give you advice on which material one should use depending on the application.
Microfluidic chips: key applications
We discuss some applications where microfluidics achieves results that would be very challenging to obtain when using conventional methods.
Microfluidic Chitosan Microcapsules Production
In this Application Note, chitosan-shell/oily-core microcapsules are generated using the Raydrop double emulsion chip, and Fluigent pressure-based flow controllers. The influence of the fluidic parameters on the size and the release from the oil across the shell are studied and presented.
Microfluidic Droplet Production Method
Droplet microfluidics is a powerful tool which consists of generating and manipulating micron sized monodispersed droplets. A Microfluidic based droplet has many diverse and varied applications such as particle synthesis and physicochemical analysis .A good control of droplet production can also make single-cell analysis, or drug testing possible. In this review we are presenting all microfluidic methods that can be used to produce droplets.
Microfluidic Flow Control Technologies: Strengths and Weaknesses
To perform effective experiments in microfluidics, one needs to master the different flow control technologies available to use the most suitable way to control microfluidic flows. This article aims at presenting a short review of the existing techniques and their strengths and weaknesses.
Microfluidic Flow Sensing Technologies, A Review
Flow rate measurement is needed for many microfluidic applications, including microfluidic droplet generation, cell culture under flow, and organs on chip. Several technologies aim to provide accurate real time flow measurement to meet this need. In this review, the different existing microfluidic flow sensing solutions for low-flow liquids are described, with their advantages and current limits, as progress is still ongoing in this field.
Microfluidic instrument responsiveness
In microfluidics, response time is the duration between a command and the the start of flow (the first reaction of the microfluidic pump). When using a pressure controller, flow will start once a sufficient pressure rise occurs in the fluidic reservoir. The electrical and mechanical response times of the hardware components such as valves need to be as low as possible in order to decrease the response time.
Microfluidic Instrument Stability
In microfluidic instrumentation, stability refers to the ability of an instrument to maintain a certain physical property at a constant value, while rejecting any perturbations in the environment. It is a very important parameter, as even small variations in physical quantities during microfluidic experiments can dramatically change the results. A stable instrument ensures that results are repeatable and reproducible.
Microfluidic flows are characterized by the prevalence of the viscous effects compared to inertia. From a physics point of view, this behavior is pointed out by a low Reynolds number indicating laminar flow. It leads to a drastic simplification of the complex Navier-Stokes equations describing fluid displacement.
Several parameters must be taken into consideration in order to choose the tubing:
- Tubing dimensions such as the outer diameter“OD”, the inner diameter “ID” and the length “L”. For example the inner diameter plays a significant role in the resistivity brought by the tubing: the smaller it is, the more resistant the tubing will be...
MICROFLUIDIC VALVE AUTOMATION: How to make it easy [SWITCH EZ] - FluigentRead more
Microfluidic Valves : SMART CONTROL and AUTOMATION of your fluidic path - FluigentRead more
Microfluidic volume definitions
Most of the time, it is useful to know the total volume of one’s fluidic circuit. Volumes in microfluidics can be different from other areas. The chip has its own volume, tubing has an internal volume. Fittings like unions, adapters or tees can have an enclosed volume that will contribute to the total volume of a system. This is referred in specification sheets as “internal volume”.
Microfluidic white paper - A guide to Organs-on-Chips technology
Discover the concepts of OOC engineering and their applications in medical sciences.
Microfluidics definitions and advantages
Microfluidics is the science of manipulating and controlling fluids, usually in the range of microliters (10-6) to picoliters (10-12), in networks of channels with dimensions from tens to hundreds of micrometers.
Microfluidics for Transmission Electron Microscopy: Characterization of Copper Electrodeposition
This application presents the Liquid-phase Transmission Electron Microscopy (LPTEM) technique, which integrates integrates liquid flow capabilities within microfabricated liquid cells, providing the means to study different processes in solution with sub-nanometer spatial resolution and sub-microsecond temporal resolution. Using this technique, it is now possible to visually study topics ranging from material science to life science.
Microfluidics for vaccines research and development
Microfluidic methods can be used to improve vaccine research and development. Microfluidic techniques are already used to develop adjuvants, perform virus identification/diagnostics, or drug micro and nanoencapsulation.
Microfluidics Technology for the Design and Formulation of Nanoparticles
Engineered Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming essential to enhance drug delivery systems (DDSs) for both biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Controlling the delivery of molecules of interest, increases their concentration in a desired location and lead to improved drug efficacy as well as minor adverse effects. NPs including lipid-based and polymeric NPs have been used over the years as nanocarriers of various bioactive molecules.
Micropipette aspiration of cells and tissues
Micropipette aspiration is a powerful non-invasive technique to evaluate how biomechanical properties of single cells or tissue govern cell shape, cell response to mechanic stimuli, transition from nontumorigenic to tumorigenic state or morphogenesis
MYOCHIP | H2020 European project
Myochip: Building a 3D innervated and irrigated muscle on a chip
The aim of the European Union’s Horizon H2020 project, Myochip is to build a muscle on chip. Myochip gathers 4 partners from all around the world: The institute of molecular medicine (Portugal), The University of Edinburg (Scotland), and Institut Curie (France).
Oil in Water Emulsions
In this application note, we present droplet generation data obtained using decane in Water, a system that demonstrates the expected behavior of most hydrocarbons in Water. We demonstrate the ability of Fluigent equipment coupled with Raydrop microfluidic devices to generate high-quality emulsions with controlled droplet sizes and with high throughput.
Passive mechanical stimulation induced by laminar and pulsatile shear stress
Indirect mechanical forces and shear stress are integral parts of the cellular microenvironment. Reproducing these mechanical forces and shear stress is critical to capture the physiology of living tissues. Three types of flows are typically generated for producing shear stress : laminar, pulsatile, or interstitial flow.
Peristaltic pump vs pressure-based microfluidic flow control systems for Organ on-chip applications
Microfluidic cell culture has significant advantages over macroscopic culture in flasks, Petri dishes, and well-plates. To demonstrate the importance of flow stability in vascular models, endothelial cells seeded in microfluidic chips were perfused either using a peristaltic pump or pressure-based flow controllers.
PLGA microcapsules synthesis
In this Application Note, PLGA shell/aqueous core microcapsules are obtained using the Secoya Raydrop Double emulsion. The influence of the fluidic parameters on the microcapsule size and release from the oil across the shell are explored in this application note.
PLGA Microparticles Synthesis
When PLGA is used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient carrier it is important to produce highly monodispersed particles for drug release reproducibility. The most common production process of PLGA particles is solvent based and can involve hazardous solutions. Ethyl acetate is preferred as it shows better biocompatibility than other conventional solvent such as dichloromethane.
PLGA nanoparticle synthesis using 3D microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing
In this Application Note, PLGA nanoparticles with high monodispersity are generated using the Raydrop single emulsion developed and manufactured by Secoya, and Fluigent pressure-based flow controllers. The ability to synthesise PLGA nanoparticles in a more controllable and reproducible way creates possibilities to tailor surface properties and increase fields of application.
PNEUMATIC VALVE CONTROLLER: How to do multiple and parallel pressurization [P-SWITCH] - FluigentRead more
Polymerization of microfluidics-produced liquid crystal double emulsions for making wavelength and polarization-selective retroreflectorsRead more
Pressure predictions for lab-on-a-chip operations using a microfluidic network solver and Fluigent PXDownloadDirect download
Production of water-in-oil emulsions using a droplet generator chip
In this application note, we demonstrate droplet generation using the Fluigent microfluidic system including pressure pumps, chemicals, tubing and a Droplet Generator Chip obtained from our partner microfluidic ChipShop.
Prostate Organoid Culture in Microbeads
Microbead-based microfluidics is a powerful technique that generates highly monodispersed picoliter-sized beads into a continuous phase. This method has been successfully adapted to cell culture to encapsulate cells in micron size hydrogel beads. The main advantages are reduced costs related to miniaturization, high reproducibility, and high throughput screening capacities.
Robust technology for double emulsion production and focus on microcapsule/microparticle synthesisRead more
Single cell sorter microfluidic platform
Passive cell or particle sorting using a dedicated package. To demonstrate the separation of particle mixtures, a solution containing 7.5 µm and 15 µm diameter polystyrene particles labeled with FITC, and TRITC fluorophores respectively was used. The particle streams were viewed and captured separately using appropriate filter cubes.
Software in Microfluidics
Software is widely defined as a set of computer programs, libraries and data that tell the computer how to work. A user can usually interact with a software through a Graphical User Interface or GUI, whose content is updated by the software’s engine. Our software tools are mostly dedicated to controlling our microfluidics instruments, allowing for remote instruments’ control and sensor’ data logging.
Testimonials Aria, automated sequential perfusion
I got to test ARIA injection system in my research project in a collaboration with Fluigent. More precisely, ARIA injection system helped me automatize the capture process and immunostaining of breast cancer cells under a very precise and controlled flow rate...
dSURF improved our droplet stability and reliability of droplet formation under control of Fluigent systems. We performed good quality dPCR and droplet-based micro-cultivation of microbials...
Testimonials Flow EZ
We use the pressure-based pumps from Fluigent for experiments that require swift responsiveness when manipulating fluids, and fine tuning at low flow rates. We use the Fluigent systems during the fabrication and running of the microfluidic chips...
Testimonials MFCS Series
The Fluigent MFCS controller allowed us a quick and hassle-free development of our solution focusing on our real application! This has also been accelerated by the dedicated and professional support we got from the amazing Fluigent team...
The Fluigent LineUp series, including the new push-pull pump, enables precise and highly controlled aspiration and respiration of liquids. The set-up allows us to further advance our research in both continuous flow and droplet microfluidics...
The RayDrop microfluidic chip from Fluigent gave us the best results with better control over the process
The Hebrew University: Encapsulation and culture in 3D hydrogels for Single cell sequencingRead more
The Raydrop | A new droplet generation device based on non-embedded co-flow-focusing
After introducing the Raydrop, Adrien Dewandre and his team from ULB demonstrate that this new configuration offers the ability to emulsify any liquid with a wide range of droplet sizes. This universality is demonstrated with experimental results. Modeling is also performed, supporting experimental results, and allowing for the prediction of droplet size and production regime (dripping, jetting regimes).
University of Maryland: A soft robotic hand with integrated fluidic circuitry that can play NintendoRead more
UV-Crosslinking of Microparticles
In this short note, we present a Fluigent microfluidic solution for polymer microparticle synthesis with high monodispersity (2% CV). The microfluidic system allows for inline particle generation, spacing, and polymerization by UV light.
Volumetric Control Technologies
To perform effective experiments in microfluidics, one needs to be aware of the different volumetric control technologies available to use the most suitable way to control microfluidic flows. The present article presents review of the existing techniques.
Here is a list of the main microfluidic flow control technologies.
Water in Fluorocarbon Oil Emulsions
In this application note, we present droplet generation data obtained using Fluigent’s own fluorocarbon oil formulation – dSURF to demonstrate the ability of Fluigent equipment coupled with Raydrop microfluidic devices to generate high-quality emulsions with controlled droplet sizes and with high throughput.
Water in Oil Emulsions
In this application note, we present droplet generation data obtained using one of the most widely used water in oil emulsion systems – water in decane. We demonstrate the ability of Fluigent equipment coupled with RayDrop microfluidic devices to generate high-quality emulsions with controlled droplet sizes and with high throughput.
What is a microfluidic chip?
We here define microfluidic chips and summarize microfluidic history.
What is the history of microfluidics?
Microfluidics is both the science which studies the behaviour of fluids through micro-channels, and the technology of systems that process or manipulate small (10-6 to 10-12 litres) amounts of fluids using microminiaturized devices
Why is it important to control shear stress in your microfluidic experiments?
Mechanical forces are potent regulators of cellular structures and functions in both health and disease. Of these forces, shear stress is particularly important as it stimulates the release of vasoactive substances and changes gene expression, cell metabolism, and cell morphology.